A trip down to Pittsburg Landing in Hells Canyon leads through the home territory of Chief Toohoolhoolzote's non-treaty band. This land is sparsely settled even now, and the band who lived here originally was not as pressured by white encroachment onto their traditional lands as the nontreaty bands of White Bird and Joseph.

Chief Toohoolhoolzote was the primary speaker for the Nez Perce case during the final council at Lapwai in May 1877. An assertive traditional chief, Toohoolhoolzote eloquently stated the beliefs of his People. Although an old man, he was still powerful and vigorous and led the young warriors in battle. General Howard called Toohoolhoolzote a "cross-grained growler" for his adherence to his beliefs, and ordered him jailed during the negotiations.

Toohoolhoolzote responds to General Howard

Sketch by Lieutenant Guy Howard. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Norris Perkins.)



The Nez Perce Flight to Canada - An Introduction

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